All About Water Storage

Warmth, medicines and water are the first things we should think about when it comes to storage because without either one we could die quickly. We also could not prepare many of the food items recommended for long-term storage, nor would we be able to wash ourselves and maintain sanitation. This article focuses only on water storage and purification. To determine what and how to store required medicines, talk with your doctors and pharmacists because they are the ones who provide access to your prescription medications.

Storage of water can be difficult in the sense that it is very heavy and it takes up a lot of space. At just over eight pounds per gallon, carrying much water becomes a difficult task. Absolute minimums for water storage include 14 gallons per person for a two week period. That would be a 2 week supply at one gallon per day. This includes drinking as well as washing. Remember this is the absolute minimum amount. The CDC (Center For Disease Control and Prevention) says “you will also need water for food preparation, bathing, brushing teeth, and dish washing.”

Another take on how much water is needed goes like this:
Minimum drinking water requirement: 5 liters per person per day
Basic requirements for sanitation: 20 liters per person per day
Basic water requirements for bathing: 15 liters per person per day
Basic requirement for food preparation: 10 liters per person per day
TOTAL = 50 liters (13.2 gallons) per person per day

During non-emergency times, the average American uses 69 gallons of water a day indoors. Think of how many gallons of water you personally use flushing toilets, running the water until it gets hot for drinking or dishwashing, running a dishwashing machine, filling a bathtub or taking a shower. Sixty Nine gallons is NOT an exaggeration. In times of emergency we can make do with much less. Even at the minimum recommended one gallon per person per day a family of four requires 56 gallons in just two weeks. This means that even one 55 gallon drum is not enough for two weeks because you must leave about four inches head room (air space) inside the drum to allow for expansion. And don’t forget your pets! You should store an additional quart per pet per day.

Whether from stored water or water collected from irregular sources, organisms sometimes exist that must be filtered and/or destroyed.

1. Protozoa–like Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the largest of the organisms and easiest to remove with simple filtration.

2. Bacteria–like Salmonella and Cholera are smaller and harder to remove.

3. Viruses–like Hepatitis are the smallest and hardest to remove. They are seldom removed or destroyed by filters alone. Most filters that destroy virus have been treated in some way to kill the viruses while filtering out other pathogens.

Ensure that all of your water storage is contained in recommended water containers: food safe, HDPE, PET or PETE bottles, jugs and barrels. Then look at the other resources around your house to add to your water supply to make you comfortable in a time of crises. I don’t think you could ever have too much water. And, since even a five gallon water jug weighs more than 40 pounds, you can see why storing your water in multiple container sizes is essential. Because the vast majority of “emergencies” will allow you to remain inside your home, storing water in large containers may make sense. Pay attention to the cost, size and weight of the storage medium. While fancy storage containers may seem like a really cool idea, consider that the extra money you spend on your fancy medium might better be spent on the purchase of more water, food and other essential supplies. I can’t eat or drink the plastic barrels. There are few places that sell 55 gallon drums for under $50. Instead, store your water in already filled one gallon jugs for under $1 each and you achieve the same result without paying extra for the water or the treatment of the water. You also need to rotate pre-bottled water every couple of years instead of every six to twelve months. Besides, they are so easy to find storage spaces for and they are so easy to handle and even carry if necessary.

In the case of catastrophic events that require you and your entire community to evacuate your homes, you cannot pick up and move even a 55 gallon drum full of water weighing approximately 450 pounds. Keep smaller containers freshly filled and easily accessible along with your emergency kit that can be grabbed as you run out the door. Also, always keep at least one gallon per person in your car. Remember though, that in some climates these water containers can freeze. This means they may crack and when thawed, leak. In the elevated temperatures car interiors reach in the summer time, the containers might also burst from the pressure. For more information on the containers themselves, see the end of this article.

Some other water sources to consider around your home are hot water tanks, toilet tanks, surface water, ground water, and rain water. Water that you store and the additional sources that you use in and around your home will probably need to be treated to get rid of contaminates. It is important for all of us to know how to treat contaminated water so it is safe to drink.

There are several methods and many products available to aid in this project. A simple way to improve the effectiveness of any purification method is to physically filter the water before treatment. Using almost any piece of cloth, strain the water by pouring it through the cloth into a container, then treat. By removing the larger particles of debris you are making it easier for the purification method used to complete its job more effectively.

  • Chlorine Dioxide This is NOT bleach. The form of water purification comes in both tablet and liquid forms. Chlorine Dioxide is the same purification product used by many municipalities for their water treatment facilities. It is tasteless and meets strict EPA water purifier test standards without using a filter, and is also used by the U.S. Military. This is the only product currently registered by the EPA that effectively controls cryptosporidium. It is the only EPA approved product for long term (up to five years) water storage. Other products seem to work well but are not EPA approved.
    Chlorine Dioxide comes in both tablet and liquid form. It is a toxin that reacts with water to form a gas that destroys all living organisms both in the water and on the surface of the container in which the water is contained (if sealed). Twenty minutes after using the liquid form, the toxins are gone and the water it totally safe to drink. Use of the tablet form requires a four hour waiting period before drinking the treated water.
  • Pasteurizing water – Most water can be purified for drinking purposes by bringing it to a temperature above 159°F for 5 minutes, this will destroy the pathogens. Without a WAPI (Water Pasteurization Indicator), the simplest visible way to pasteurize water is to bring it to a boil. By the time water comes to a full boil it has been above 159° long enough without boiling any longer. If desired, to improve the taste of the water after pasteurizing, simply pour the pasteurized water, after it has cooled, from one container to another several times to aerate the water to a normal state.
  • Bleach method – liquid chlorine bleach (Clorox or Purex type bleaches, containing 4% to 6% sodium hypochlorite. DO NOT use scented bleach). Chlorine bleach is another toxin. However, when used properly and under most conditions, chlorine bleach is a suitable disinfectant for filtered, raw water. Used at the rate of 8 drops per gallon of clear water, or one teaspoon of bleach for five gallons of water, three tablespoons will disinfect 55 gallons of water. This level of treatment will kill bacteria and viruses and prevent the growth of microorganisms during storage. Also check with your local water plant for any additional information they may have for you.Turbid water (filled with sediment and/or debris) requires you to double the above amounts, i.e. at least 16 drops per gallon in turbid water (another reason to pre-filter most water before using a chemical treatment. After waiting at least 20 minutes you should still be able to smell the bleach. If not, retreat and wait another 20 minutes before smelling and using the treated water.Keep in mind that household bleach may not be as effective under certain conditions such as water that is extremely hot, cold, alkaline or full of organic matter. Chlorine is effective against most pathogens but has a very short purification time span. In hot water, bleach as a disinfectant is only effective for a maximum of 20 minutes. In room temperature water, such as water stored in containers in a house or basement, water should remain pure for at least 6 months if the storage container is not opened during the six months.CAUTION: NEVER store water in bleach bottles. Although the water is safe in a bleach bottle, the potential problem is too great to ignore. When small children see you put water into a bleach bottle and/or pour water out of the bleach bottle to drink, they naturally associate the bleach bottle label as meaning it is okay to drink. If they were to ever pick up and drink bleach instead of water, the results are most likely an agonizing death – physically for the child and emotionally for the parents. (This warning is repeated in the Container section below.)
  • Iodine Method – Iodine can be used to treat small quantities of water. Be sure to stir thoroughly when mixing iodine into the water resource. The presence of the iodine taste or smell is a sign of safety. If you cannot detect either the taste or smell after water is treated, don’t use it. The iodine may have become weakened by time, heat, or contamination. Iodine can come in a liquid form or tablets. Use 12 drops of 2% iodine per gallon for clear water and 24 drops for cloudy water (pay attention to the iodine percentage).For example, Potable Aqua tablets contains 20 milligrams of Tetraglycine Hydroperiodide (TGHP), which liberates 8 milligrams (ppm) of titratable iodine. Dissolving Potable Aqua tablets in water releases iodine. At the concentration released by Potable Aqua tablets, iodine will kill the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Vibrio Cholerae, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococcus Faecalis, Entamoeba Histolytica, Giardia, Infectious Hepatitis. Potable Aqua is not effective against Cryptosporidium and generally leaves a very unpleasant taste in the water. This is not the type of iodine to be considered as a preventative for radiation contamination.
  • Stabilized Oxygen – is oxygen in molecular form. Even though these products do not obtain EPA approval ratings, researchers have not found any anaerobic infectious disease bacteria that Stabilized Oxygen does not kill. ION and other brands have been and are being used by thousands of people with complete success. It usually comes in a liquid form. For water storage, follow the manufacturers’ directions. There is no after taste. The shelf life is from 5 to 10 years.
  • Filtration – There are multiple types of filtration systems. Filter media include ceramic, glass fiber, structured matrix, iodinated resin or carbon, etc. The smaller the pore sizes the smaller the organisms the filter can trap. For the most complete filtration, look for filters that include removal of up to 99.99% of viruses, contaminants and pollutants found in water.Filters come in a variety of pump, gravity, suction and siphon styles. No one style does a better job than another. Each, however, serves best in certain circumstances.
  • Pumps can provide large amounts in a short time. Gravity filtration allows for very large quantities in a hands-free environment but takes a long time.
  • Suction filters, such as in bottles and straw types are very fast and convenient.
    • Bottles can share filtered water by squeezing water into multiple containers for multiple people to use.
    • Whereas straws are usually only good for a single person and for smaller amounts of about 20 to 25 gallons per straw. Even so, this equates to 40 or 50 days of safe drinking water. Because straws only work when someone is sucking on one end, they do not provide water for cooking and other uses.
  • Siphon styles are similar to gravity filters in that they just sit in a container of water. Once started they cause water to move from a higher container to a lower container as the water is siphoned through the filter and hose. Both gravity and siphon filters usually treat larger quantities than other methods. They are both just very slow.

Semi-effective gravity type filters can often be constructed from materials at hand. They usually can be made effective enough to filter out Giardia and Cryptosporidium but sand, charcoal and other common components will not destroy viruses. This is another whole level of filtration that goes beyond the scope of this paper.

  • Ultraviolet or UV – is not believed by everyone to be an effective method of purification. There are plenty of studies proving its effectiveness. Both electric UV light devices and natural sunlight can perform the job of destroying all harmful organisms.
    Portable electric UV Light devices are usually expensive battery operated and generally require only a minute or so of light exposure for all living organisms in the water to be destroyed. When you are out of battery power, you are out of luck using the electric device.

A second method of UV light purification is the sun, better known as SODIS (Solar Disinfection). By using a clear plastic bottle no larger than 2 liters filled with water, laid on its side on highly reflective material that is curved about halfway around the bottom of the bottle and exposed to full sunlight for at least six hours, the ultraviolet rays of the sun perform the same function as the electric device, only slower. Containers larger than two liters create a distance barrier for the UV rays to reach all the way through. While gallon jugs are wonderful storage medium, they do not work for SODIS use.

Water tested before and after using this method has proven to result in the total destruction of all pathogens. The clearer the water is when put into the bottle, the more effective the UV light method is. This means you should pre-filter almost all water before starting the UV light treatment so that the debris in the water does not create shadows and therefore prevent light from reaching and disinfecting ALL of the water. Again, in less than nearly full sun, the process requires two days instead of just six hours.

In this and all descriptions above, the word “destroyed” means “killed” or rendered no longer viable or harmful to humans or animals. At the same time, the word destroyed never includes any form of filtration. So, while the water may be safe to drink because all existing pathogens are no longer harmful, they are still in the water. Some of them may be visible and some may not. For this reason many people prefer to both filter and destroy harmful pathogens. So, for emotional and safety reasons, filter first and then treat if both are required.

As you research to find what is best for your most likely situations, remember the possible mental state you and your family members might be in during emergency situations. What can you do to mitigate the mental perceptions of each person in your family or group? Visual purity may be too important to some to ignore – at least during the first day or two.

Containers

1. Appropriate plastic containers generally range in size from one and two liter bottles to one gallon and five gallon jugs to the 15, 30, 55, 125 and 250 gallon sizes. Larger sizes are sometimes appropriate but special considerations need to be met. Make sure all containers are “food grade” plastic, so that a plastic taste is not leached out into the water. Most of these containers can withstand fluctuation in temperatures so they can be stored in a garage, basement or shed as long as any valves or faucets are not left installed. Freezing water will usually break the protruding valves/faucets.

Avoid putting containers directly on cement due to possible leaching of acid from the cement into the water through the plastic. Leave sufficient head space in the container to allow for freezing. This will prevent cracking.

2. Small containers (when cleaned thoroughly) such as originally used water, juice and soda pop bottles are useful because they are so portable; always check for PET or PETE designations on these containers. You may sometimes see the warning “Do not refill” on these bottles. It is not that it is unsafe to use again, it is that these containers are made to decompose over time, unlike most plastics we are familiar with. They are perfectly safe to use to store water if properly cleaned and sanitized. Just remember to check them every six months to ensure they are not leaking or getting so thin in spots that they may soon begin leaking.

NEVER reuse milk product bottles because it is impossible to ever wash/rinse out all of the enzymes in milk and these will cause the water (or food) to go bad very quickly. Plastic milk jugs are also biodegradable so they start deteriorating within one year – obviously not good when the water starts to leak out. Make sure water storage is out of direct sunlight. Avoid placing water containers in areas where toxic substances such as gasoline, paint products and pesticides are present. Vapors may penetrate even food grade plastic over time.

3. Flexible or collapsible containers may also meet your needs. Most of these are intended more for water carrying, such as when camping. There are, however, water storage systems that use collapsible bladders that are inserted in either cardboard or metal frames and range from five gallon to 250 gallons or more. The outside frames allow them to be stacked and can be easy to find places for.

4. One other form of container is becoming more popular of late. Water cubes, water blocks and several other names refer to extra heavily constructed plastic containers that are made for freestanding and stacking situations. Their dimensions are often thinner than other types of containers and might even fit behind cabinet drawers. If you’ve never noticed, remove one drawer completely and, using a flashlight, check to see how much vacant room is left behind each drawer; you may be surprised. On a side note: this can also be a great place to store certain foods that come in small boxes like cereal, rice-a-roni, baking soda, etc. Think of your own products that might fit.

CAUTION: NEVER store water in bleach bottles. Although the water is safe in a bleach bottle, the potential problem is too great to ignore. When small children see you put water into a bleach bottle and/or pour water out of the bleach bottle to drink, they naturally associate the bleach bottle label as meaning it is okay to drink. If they were to ever pick up and drink bleach instead of water, the results are most likely an agonizing death – physically for the child and emotionally for the parents. (This warning is repeated in the Purification section above.)

Rain Catchment Systems

Another important consideration is the capture of water – most often meaning rain water. Most methods of gathering and capturing water still allow for filtering and purification of the water. Generally water captured from exposed areas is not clean enough to drink untreated/filtered, it simply provides a much greater amount of water to work with. In a general sense, most rain catchment systems divert the water running off of the roof into rain gutters which then empty into various water containers such as barrels, ponds, and so on.

There are many ways to capture water and learning about as many as possible is a good idea. Start small if you have to and expand according to your living quarters and your finances. Water remains one of the three most important items to store, along with warm and can’t-go-without medications.

 

8 Steps to Becoming Self-Reliant

Family Image
STEP 1 Is to not just understand the need to acquire a storage program and to become SELF-RELIANT, but to become committed to doing it and set a time frame to work it.

STEP 2: Learn what it takes and what you need to become SELF-RELIANT. Learn the basic home storage, 1st Aid and family preparedness, so that you and your family can live 1 year or two with a minimum of outside dependency on others. Doing this will save money, time and effort as you set up a plan of action.

STEP 3: Put together a 72 HOUR KIT for your home, car, office and /or school. This is a kit that will provide you with food, water, light, heat and other important items that will help you and your family during and after an emergency.

STEP 4: WATER-WATER-WATER. Store 1 gallon of water a day per person for drinking. A week minimum supply is recommended. Learn to purify and filter water and use a solar still.

STEP 5: Putting your food storage together.
A) We recommend a three to six month supply of the foods you are already eating.
B) A two month supply of ready to eat foods (no water, no cook type-grab & go),
C) A one year supply of long-term storage foods – bulk grains dehydrated or freeze-dried foods.

STEP 6: Get your supply of non-food items. Remember the need to take care of cooking, heat, light, shelter, 1st Aid, tools, communication, sanitation, camping equipment, fuel, clothing, garden supplies, etc.

STEP 7: Putting together a library of helpful books is very important ranging from general repair to survival manuals, gardening. 1st Aid, food storage books, cookbooks and anything that might be helpful under any circumstance and situation you might find yourself in.

STEP 8: After you have completed the first 7 steps, you can get the extra items you have become accustomed to in life, which are not essential to survival but would be nice to have. (REMEMBER: They won’t be nice to have if you don’t have the essentials!)

Not only do you want to set about acquiring and storing these items, but set up a way to use and replenish what you have.

REMEMBER:

Your spiritual preparation might be the greatest asset you acquire!

Basic Steps of Emergency Childbirth

babies

Basic Steps of Emergency Childbirth

1. Stay calm! This is the most important point to remember. Birth is designed to work beautifully in a variety of circumstances. If it weren’t, the human race would have died out long ago. But the system depends on a complex interaction of hormones. When the mother is stressed or frightened, these hormones can become disrupted and cause problems with the birth or with the postpartum period. Women in labor are very suggestible and will absorb the emotions of people around them. If you panic, she will panic. If you speak calmly and quietly, it will help her be calm. So take a deep breath, say a prayer, do your best, and leave it in God’s hands.
2. Slow down. This is part of being calm, but it is also necessary to have patience. With a first-time mother the birth can be quite slow at the end. The baby’s head may be visible while she’s pushing, then disappear while she rests. This is normal and desirable. The baby is slowly, gently stretching the mother’s tissues. You must adopt this patient, timeless pace. Hurrying and scurrying only upsets the mother.
3. Speak encouragingly to the mother: Women in labor are very suggestible. If you tell her she can do it, she’ll believe you and she’ll do it. Tell her she’s doing great. Tell her she’s making good progress. Tell her it won’t be long before she holds her baby.
4. Give the mother water to drink if she wants it. Dehydration makes the whole process harder. Near the end of the labor the mother probably won’t want more than sips of water but they should be given frequently. If she is in an earlier stage of labor she will need to eat easily digestible foods and/or drinks with calories in order to keep up her energy.
5. Encourage the mother to adopt an efficient position, usually of her own choice. Do not tell the mother to lie down or sit against a wall unless this is what she wants to do. More upright positions are usually more efficient. Hands and knees is a very common position for birthing. Squatting with support opens the outlet of the pelvis by 15-20% and can be very helpful. Kneeling over something like a chair or a couch is popular. Some women give birth in a standing position and this is very efficient also. It might be easier for the attendant if mother is on her back or semi-sitting, but these positions can make it harder for the baby to emerge. Remember, the mother is giving birth. It’s her work. You are only helping to catch and assisting as needed. Some mothers catch their own babies. Her body knows what she needs to do to get the baby out. Give her room to listen to her
body. Don’t worry if she makes noise but if she’s screaming and hysterical you need to help her calm down. Panic = Pain.
6. Put something clean under the mother: This is not only for protecting the floor or bed, but also to keep the area clean so as to minimize the chance of infection. If you can find something white or light colored, it will be easier to assess the amount of blood loss.
7. Wash your hands: If you possibly can, do a thorough job of washing with any good soap and dry your hands on something clean. If this is not possible, see if you can at least use a waterless hand sanitizer.
8. Keep your hands away from the birth canal: You can’t do any good and may do harm. But you can encourage the mother to reach down and touch her baby’s head as it becomes visible. This can be very grounding and helpful and encouraging to a mother. If she eases the baby out gently, she is less likely to tear.
9. When the baby is born, make sure he/she can breathe: If there are a lot of secretions on the face, wipe the baby’s face. If the cord is around the neck, slip it off or unwind it. Hold the baby securely with the face lower than the bottom so fluids can drain out. If baby has not cried after a few seconds, stimulate by rubbing the back from the base of the spine to the neck. Talk to the baby and encourage the mother to talk to her baby.
10. Put the baby skin-to-skin on the mother’s chest or tummy: This is the best place for the baby to regulate temperature, breathing and heart rate. Even if baby doesn’t seem to be completely vigorous, the mother’s touch is the best thing for him/her.
11. Keep the baby warm: As soon as you can, place a clean towel or other cloth over the baby. If possible, dry the baby a bit and cover with a new, dry towel or blanket.
12. Help the mother into a comfortable position and keep her warm.
13. Give the mother something to drink that has calories: The mother may feel a bit shocky or may be exhausted. She needs something to bring her blood sugar up to normal.
14. Keep the energy in the room low! In order for the mother’s hormones to act properly and help her expel the placenta and minimize bleeding, she must be kept calm, comfortable, and encouraged to bond with her baby. Don’t say anything worrying or allow people in the room to become noisy, even though they may feel elated. The baby also deserves a quiet transition to this new life.
15. Don’t cut the cord until the placenta is out. Don’t pull on the cord: It often takes from 20 minutes to an hour for the placenta to be expelled. It will at least be several minutes before the mother feels crampy, a signal that the uterus is contracting to try to push the placenta out. There will usually be a small gush of blood which signals that the placenta has detached from the uterine wall. When the mother starts feeling uncomfortable and a bit restless, the placenta is probably just sitting inside the vagina and will come out easily if she kneels or stands up.
16. Wrap the placenta in something and put it near the baby. If you have sterile scissors and something sterile to tie off the cord securely, you may tie the cord tightly and cut the baby free from the placenta. Otherwise, just keep the wrapped placenta near the baby for a few days until the cord dries and falls off. This was an old pioneer method and is still better than clamping or cutting with unclean instruments.
17. Encourage breastfeeding: Help the mother place the baby’s mouth near her breast. Eventually most babies will latch on by themselves, or the baby may need a bit of help. Give the baby time. At first he/she will just mouth around and lick at the nipple. Even this is helpful in causing the mother to release the hormones that make the uterus contract, preventing excessive bleeding.
18. If help has not arrived or cannot arrive: Stay with the mother constantly for the first several hours. She may need help to get up and urinate. Don’t let her go anywhere by herself for the first 24 hours, because she may faint suddenly. Her bleeding should decrease after the placenta is out, and she should not fill a large Kotex in less than 30 minutes. If mother will stay in bed and keep the baby skin-to-skin (dress the baby in only a diaper if the room is warm enough), breastfeeding will likely go well and mother will recover well. She needs a good hearty meal soon after the birth, then she and the baby need to sleep.
19. Take a deep breath, get something to eat, and rest yourself. You deserve it!

Pets

pets

Your pets depend on you for survival. It is important for you to include them in your disaster and evacuation plans. Pets (not including service animals) are not allowed in emergency shelters so other arrangements need to be thought of and made.

Prepare now

  • Prepare by having a pet emergency kit.
  • Have a copy of pet vaccinations.
  • Keep pets current on vaccinations.
  • Have identification tags secure on pets collar.
  • Get a pet carrier and leash.
  • Have a two-week supply of extra food, water, treats and medications stored.
  • Get a pet first aid kit.
  • Get a current photo of your pet taken.
  • Get an emergency litter box.
  • Make a card with your pet’s name and behavior listed on it.
  • Find out which hotels/motels allow pets.
  • Locate pet boarding facilities.

If you have to evacuate during an emergency

  • Remain calm!
  • Take your pet with you.
  • Follow the evacuation plan that you’ve made.
  • Take the pet carrier and leash. Animals can become aggressive in stressful situations.
  • Take the pet emergency kit and first aid kit.
  • Take a copy of pet vaccinations, picture and card with pet’s name.
  • Take the litter box (if needed).
  • Take at least a 3 day supply of food and water and the dishes needed.
  • Take any medications your pet needs with you.

 

Emergency Kit Recommendations

kit

General Recommendations

  1.  Emergency Supplies should be organized and kept in one location and should be portable.
  2. You should have a basic knowledge of how to use the emergency supplies.
  3. You should periodically ensure that the contents of the kit are in working order and rotate the food rations.
  4. Contents of the kit depend on your environment. If you live in Idaho, your kit needs more emphasis on keeping you warm than if you live in Alabama.
  5. Don’t rely solely on a prepackaged kit to meet all of your needs. You need to be sure to add prescription medications, a change of clothing and other special items needed by your family.
  6. Don’t forget items to keep your mind active and to relieve stress (games, a book, crafts etc.)
  7. Kit contents can be divided into survival necessities and comfort needs. Make sure you have all of the basic survival necessities, then add other items for comfort.
  8. Remember, the kit must be portable.

Sample Survival Necessities

Food and Water

  • Packaged Water
  • Water Purification Tablets

Emergency Food Source

  • Folding Stove
  • Basic Utensils

Communication

  • Radio
  • Signaling Mirror
  • Emergency Whistle

Shelter and Warmth

  • Tent
  • Rain Gear
  • Reflective Blanket

Heat Source

  • Hand/Body Warmers
  • Waterproof Matches
  • Wool Blanket
  • Change of Clothes

Flashlight

Hygiene

  • Soap or Hand Sanitizer
  • Toilet Paper
  • Feminine Hygiene needs

Emergency Tools

  • Rope
  • Duct Tape
  • Multi-tool

First Aid

  • Prescription Medications as needed
  • Medical Gloves
  • Bandages
  • Gauze and Tape
  • Antiseptic
  • Sun Screen
  • Insect Repellent